A complete list of citations and suggested reading


Banks‐Leite, C., Ewers, R.M. and Metzger, J.‐P. (2010), Edge effects as the principal cause of area effects on birds in fragmented secondary forest. Oikos, 119: 918-926.

Barker, D., and Spence, B. (1988). Afro-Caribbean Agriculture: A Jamaican Maroon Community in Transition. The Geographical Journal, 154(2), 198-208. DOI:10.2307/633846

Camargo, J., and Kapos, V. (1995). Complex Edge Effects on Soil Moisture and Microclimate in Central Amazonian Forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 11(2), 205-221. Retrieved January 9, 2021, from

Cawley, R., Wright, C., White, O., Rowe, D. and Gibson, L. (2020). New and increasing threats may have significant impact on Jamaica's black-billed parrot Amazona agilis. Oryx, 54(4), pp. 441-441. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605320000265

Davis, H. (2017). Forest disturbance has negative consequences for the persistence of Jamaica’s threatened and endangered bird species in Cockpit Country. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology, 30(1), pp. 57-68. Available at: (Accessed: May 15 2020)

Flaspohler, D.J., Temple, S.A. and Rosenfield, R.N. (2001). Species‐Specific Edge Effects on Nest Success and Breeding Bird Density in a Forested Landscape. Ecological Applications, 11: 32-46.[0032:SSEEON]2.0.CO;2

Gale, G. A., Round, P. D., Pierce, A. J., Nimnuan, S., Pattanavibool, A., and Brockelman, W. Y. (2009). A Field Test of Distance Sampling Methods for a Tropical Forest Bird Community. The Auk, 126(2), 439-448. DOI:10.1525/auk.2009.08087

Gibson, L. (2020). Bycatch of the Day: Wild Meat Consumption, Ecological Knowledge, and Symbolic Capital among Indigenous Maroon Parrot Hunters of Jamaica. Journal of Ethnobiology, 40(2), 167-182. DOI:10.2993/0278-0771-40.2.167

Harris, L. (1988). Edge Effects and Conservation of Biotic Diversity. Conservation Biology, 2(4), 330-332. Retrieved January 9, 2021, from

Koenig, S. E. (2008). Black-billed parrot (Amazona agilis) population viability assessment (PVA): a science-based prediction for policy makers. Ornitologia Neotropical, 19, 135-149. Available at: (Accessed: March 14 2020).

Koenig, S. E. (2001). The breeding biology of Black-billed Parrot Amazona agilis and Yellow-billed Parrot Amazona collaria in Cockpit Country, Jamaica. Bird Conservation International, 11(3), 205-225. DOI:10.1017/S0959270901000284

Luna, Á., Romero-Vidal, P., Hiraldo, F. and Tella, J.L., 2018. Cities may save some threatened species but not their ecological functions. PeerJ, 6, p.e4908.

Newman, M. E., McLaren, K. P., and Wilson, B. S. (2014). Assessing deforestation and fragmentation in a tropical moist forest over 68 years; the impact of roads and legal protection in the Cockpit Country, Jamaica. Forest Ecology and Management, 315,138-152. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.12.033

Reillo, P. R., and Durand, S. (2008). Parrot conservation on Dominica: successes, challenges, and technological innovations. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology, 21(1), 52-58. Available at: (Accessed: July 27 2020).

Reimer, J., Schubart, C., and Diesel, R. (1998). Description of a New Freshwater Crab of the Genus Sesarma Say, 1817 (Brachyura, Grapsidae, Sesarminae) from Western Jamaica. Crustaceana, 71(2), 185-196. Retrieved January 9, 2021, from

Restrepo, C. and Gómez, N. (1998), Responses of Understory Birds to Anthropogenic Edges in a Neotropical Montane Forest. Ecological Applications, 8: 170-183.[0170:ROUBTA]2.0.CO;2

Sundberg, J., Karlsson, P.-E., Schenk, L., and Pleijel, H. (2006). Variation in ozone concentration in relation to local climate in south-west Sweden. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 173(1), 339-354. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-005-9076-8

Thompson, W. L. (2002). Towards Reliable Bird Surveys: Accounting for Individuals Present but not Detected. The Auk, 119(1), 18-25. DOI: 10.1093/auk/119.1.18

Vetter, D., Rücker,G., and Storch, I. (2013). A meta-analysis of tropical forest edge effects on bird nest predation risk:: Edge effects in avian nest predation. Biological Conservation, 159(1), 382-395.

Watson, J.E.M., Whittaker,R.J., and Dawson, T.P. (2004). Habitat structure and proximity to forest edge affect the abundance and distribution of forest-dependent birds in tropical coastal forests of southeastern Madagascar. Biological Conservation, 120(3), 311-327.

Watters, J.L., Cummings, S.T., Flanagan,R.L., and Siler, C.D. (2016). Review of morphometric measurements used in anuran species descriptions and recommendations for a standardized approach. Zootaxa 4072 (4): 477–495.

Young, A., and Mitchell, N. (1994). Microclimate and vegetation edge effects in a fragmented podocarp-broadleaf forest in New Zealand. Biological Conservation, 67(1), 63-72. DOI: 10.1016/0006-3207(94)90010-8

Watters, J.L., Cummings, S.T., Flanagan,R.L., and Siler, C.D. (2016). Review of morphometric measurements used in anuran species descriptions and recommendations for a standardized approach. Zootaxa 4072 (4): 477–495.